Dorper dan white Dorper di biak adalah untuk tujuan pedagingan. Kadar pembesaran yang yang cepat. Anak Dorper dan White Dorper boleh mencapai keberatan 35-40kg dalam masa umur 4-5 bulan. Daya tahan yg baik dalam berbagai-bagai jenis cuca, sama ada panas dan lembab.
White Dorper Ram
Tiada perbezaan diantara Dorper dan white Dorper. Perbezan yang ada hanya warna di kepala.
Ketika ini Dorper adalah baka biri-biri pedaging terulung di dunia. Di Afrika Selatan terdapat lebih lima juta ekor baka Dorper.Baka ini dipilih kerana dijangka berupaya menyesuaikan diri dengan iklim tempatan, kadar kenaikan berat badan tinggi, kadar kembar tinggi, pengeluaran susu yang banyak serta karkas berkualiti (nisbah daging kepada tulang yang tinggi). Baka ini mudah dipelihara dan tidak memerlukan tenaga pekerja yang ramai. Ia dapat menggunakan makanan (pastura dan dedak secara optimum) dengan kadar kematian rendah dan imun terhadap penyakit dengan kadar kesuburan tinggi dan banyak anak dapat dipasarkan. Baka yang menarik dan popular dari jenis pedaging dengan kesuburan yang tinggi dan berupaya untuk musim pembiakan yang panjang sepanjang tahun. Baka ini sangat subur dengan kadar bunting yang tinggi dan pejantan boleh dikahwinkan dengan lebih 30 induk betina dalam masa 40 hingga 60 hari. Kadar kelahiran boleh dijadualkan setiap lapan bulan (tiga kelahiran dalam masa dua tahun) dengan kadar kembar yang tinggi. Dengan pengurusan yang baik kadar kelahiran lebih 150 peratus dapat dihasilkan. Induk betina mempunyai ciri keibuan yang baik dan dengan penghasilan susu yang tinggi dapat memelihara anak dengan baik sehingga cerai susu dengan peratus cerai susu yang tinggi. Kadar kenaikan badan yang tinggi. Dengan pemakanan yang baik anak baka tulen Dorper boleh mencapai berat badan 30 hingga 35 kilogram (kg) dalam masa tiga hingga empat bulan. Mempunyai kualiti karkas yang baik dengan pertumbuhan lemak dalam daging yang serata menjadikan karkas mencapai Gred Super di pasaran.
Walaupun baka Dorper pada asalnya dibangunkan untuk dipelihara di kawasan panas dan kering di Afrika Selatan namun ia didapati sesuai dipelihara di pelbagai iklim dengan pemakanan yang pelbagai di dalam beberapa sistem pemeliharaan sama ada sistem intensif, semi-intensif atau bebas baik dalam kawasan padang pasir, tropika atau lembap.
Overview: The Dorper is a South African mutton breed developed in the 1930's from the Dorset Horn and Blackheaded Persian. The breed was developed for the arid extensive regions of South Africa. One of the most fertile of sheep breeds that is hornless with good body length and a short light covering of hair and wool. The breed has the characteristic black head (Dorper) as well as white heads (White Dorper). Furthermore the breed shows exceptional adaptability, hardiness, reproduction rates and growth (reaching 36 kg [~80 lbs] at three and a half to four months) as well as good mothering abilities.
The Dorper breed was developed through the crossing of the Blackhead Persian ewe with the Dorset Horn and this resulted in the birth of some white Dorper lambs. The difference in color is therefor merely a matter of preference for each breeder. Black-headed breeders constitute about 85% of the members of the Dorper Sheep Breeders' Society of South Africa.
The Dorper breed is now numerically the second largest breed in South Africa and has spread to many countries throughout the world.
Mutton Production: The Dorper is primarily a mutton sheep and meets these requirements exceptionally well. The Dorper has a long breeding season which is not seasonally limited. A good manager can organize his program so that lambs can be dropped at any time of the year. The breed is fertile and the percentage of ewes that become pregnant in one mating season is relatively high. Lambing intervals can be eight months. Consequently under good forage conditions and with good management the Dorper ewe can lamb three times in two years. A lambing percentage of 150% can be reached under good conditions while in exceptional cases even 180% can be attained. Under extensive conditions a lambing percentage of 100% can be expected. In a flock containing a large number of maiden ewes, the lambing percentage will be in the region of 120% as these ewes usually drop single lambs. If it is assumed that the lambing percentage is 150% and that management is at such a level that ewes can lamb about three times in two years, a Dorper ewe will produce 2.25 lambs on an annual basis.
The Dorper lamb grows rapidly and attains a high weaning weight which again is an economically important characteristic in the breeding of mutton sheep. A live weight of about 36 kg can be reached by the Dorper lamb at the age of 3- 4 months. This ensures a high quality carcass of approximately 16 kg. This is associated with the inherent growth potential of the Dorper lamb and its ability to graze at an early age.
According to Dr Q P Campbell in "Make Money with Mutton Sheep", the average daily gain of Dorpers under extensive conditions was from 81 g to 91 g per day. During a phase D2 growth test at Tweedie, the average daily gain was 160 g per day in the test while the average daily gain per day of age was 203 g per day.
The Dorper is well adapted to a variety of climatic and grazing conditions. Originally this breed was developed for the more arid areas of the Republic but today they are widely spread throughout all the provinces. The Dorper does well in various range and feeding conditions and reacts very favorably under intensive feeding conditions.
The Dorper is hardy and can thrive under range conditions where other breeds can barely exist and the ewe can raise a lamb of reasonable quality under fairly severe conditions. As a strong and non-selective grazer the Dorper can advantageously be incorporated into a well planned range management system.
The Dorper is an easy care breed which requires a minimum of labor. Its skin covering which is a mixture of hair and wool, will drop off if not shorn to keep it tidy. The Dorper has a thick skin which is highly prized and protects the sheep under harsh climatic conditions.The Dorper skin is the most sought after sheepskin in the world and is marketed under the name of Cape Glovers. The skin comprises a high percentage of the income (20%) of the total carcass value.
Dorsets Horned and PolledThe exact history of the Dorset sheep is found wanting for some positive record of origin. History does tell us that centuries ago, Spain wished to conquer England, and possibly during this time, the Merino sheep were brought into Southwest England and were crossed with the Horned Sheep of Wales, which produced a desirable all-purpose sheep which met the needs of that time. Thus began a breed of sheep which spread over Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and most of Wales and were called Horned Dorsets. In the USA they are called Dorset.
Dorsets in America, in a publication called Sheep Industry in the United States, written by Ezra Carmen, H, A. Heath, and John Minton, all of whom were Oregon pioneers living in the Salem, OR area, we learn of Dorsets being in Oregon in 1860. These shipments were brought to the West Coast from England by the Hudson Bay Shipping Company and the first Dorsets were brought over for Mr. Richard Scott of Milwaukee, OR, in 1860. The first Dorsets on the East Coast were brought from England in 1885 and exhibited at the American Fat Stock Show in Chicago. Other early importers between 1887 and 1891 were: William Daley, Lockport, NY; E. F. Bowditch, Framingham, MA; T. S. Cooper, Coopersburg, PA; J, L. Henderson & Son, Washington, PA, and Tranquility Farms, Allamuchy, NJ.
Polled Dorsets originated at North Carolina State College, Raleigh, NC, and were apparently the result of a mutation which occurred in the purebred Horned Dorset flock at the college. After careful research and testing were done to assure that the Polled Dorset carried the same characteristics as the Horned Dorsets and were able to propagate these traits, the new strain was accepted into U.S. registry in 1956.
Both horned and polled Dorsets are an all white sheep of medium size having good body length and muscle conformation to produce a desirable carcass. The fleece is very white, strong, close and free from dark fiber. Dorset fleeces average five to nine pounds (2.25-4 kg) in the ewes with a yield of between 50% and 70%. The staple length ranges from 2.5 to 4 inches (6-10 cm) with a numeric count of 46's-58's. The fiber diameter will range from 33.0 to 27.0 microns.
Dorset ewes weigh from 150 to 200 pounds at maturity, some in show condition may very well exceed this weight, Dorset rams weigh from 225 to 275 pounds at maturity. Dorsets are one of the few breeds that carry the "out-of-season" breeding characteristic. The ewes are good mothers, good milkers and multiple births are not uncommon. Dorsets work well in commercial situations both in the ewe flock and from a terminal sire aspect.
The number of Polled Dorsets now in the country far exceeds the number of Horned Dorsets; however, this is not just the case in the USA; but is true also in other countries where Dorsets are popular. This is true simply because of the personal preference of the sheep producers.
Dorsets have grown in popularity to become the number-one white faced breed in the United States. Their numbers also make them the second largest breed in total numbers in the USA, ranking below only the Suffolk breed.
The official registry office for Dorset Sheep in the United States (both Horned and Polled) is called the Continental Dorset Club. The organization is governed by an elected Board of 6 Dorset Breeders from various parts of the country - giving all areas a representative on the Board. A National Show & Sale and Annual Meeting are held each year, and an International Dorset Show and a National Junior Dorset Show are held annually at the North American Livestock Exposition. Our organization has many activities involving our youth as we believe they are the future of the sheep industry.
Reference:Continental Dorset Club, Debra Hopkins, PO Box 506, North Scituate, Rhode Island 02857-0506 (401) 647-4676 Who's Who in U.S. Sheep Breeds(poster), American Sheep Industry Assn., Inc.; 6911 S. Yosemite St. Suite 200; Englewood, CO 80112-1414 Phone: (303) 771-3500 FAX: (303) 771-8200
The Dorset Down originated in England around 1800 by mating Southdown rams with the large Hampshire Down (Hampshire), Berkshire and Wiltshire ewes. The breed was introduced to Australia in 1937, but has not gained great popularity.
The Dorset Down is a quick maturing, robust breed. Its main role is as a terminal sire for prime lamb production. Number, and hence selection potential, are small